Sustainability of Malaysian Smallholder Banana Farming: an Energy Efficiency Use-Based Audit



Banana (Musa spp.) is one of important food crops that contributes to the Malaysia’s economy from agro-based industry sector. This study aims to inspect the sustainability of banana cultivation by smallholder in Malaysia based on auditing the energy  efficiency use on its crop upkeep operation. Data were collected based on oral interviews with the owner of smallholder banana farming   at  off the coast of the state of Sabah in East Malaysia, Malaysia.   Energy efficiency use for fertilizing, spraying herbicide, irrigation, pruning and harvesting in banana cultivation were audited  in the study.   The findings showed  total energy input use for crop upkeep in banana cultivation was 17998.50 MJ/ha. Fertilizer was the highest energy input  with share  53.88% of  the total energy use  for  crop upkeep operation  in banana cultivation,  while  machinery with contribution   0.24% of the total energy use   was the least. The ratio of energy output/inputs was equal to 1.002, which means  crop upkeep operation in the study area is not therefore gaining energy, and it is not losing energy.  In general, this value reflects the suitability of smallholder banana farming in the study area was mediocre.  Thus,   sustainable  cultivation techniques  should be enhanced in the farming  to lift-up the energy efficiency use, and furthermore meet the relevant point in the sustainability development goal.  






IV-Energy in Agriculture