The Response Surface Methodology Approach Successfully Optimizes a Dry Milling Process of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) Flour Production that uses Micro Mill- Assisted by Cyclone Separator
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of feed rate and inlet air velocity on the physicochemical properties of porang flour by using Central Composite Design Method of Response Surface Methodology (CCD –RSM), in order to ascertain whether the CCD-RSM as a predictive approach is accurate in optimizing porang flour production. Advanced instruments, including FTIR (Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and PSA (Particle Size Analyzer) were used to characterize an optimum micro-mill milled porang flour (OMMPF). The predicted optimum conditions for producing porang flour were feed rate of 48.86 kg/h, and an inlet air velocity of 9.00 m/s, which produced a calcium oxalate content of 2.43±0.00%, a degree of whiteness (DoW) of 57.04±0.00, a viscosity of 4104.80±1.50 cPs, and a glucomannan content of 53.39 ±0.00 % d.b. The verification experimental data were not statistically significantly different (P>0.05) to the prediction optimization data generated by the Design Expert Software. OMMPF had an amorphous form based on the XRD-Diffraction analysis. DSC analysis revealed that first and second peaks were at 99.5 -105.50C and 310.2 - 316.8 0C, respectively. Particle size analysis of OMMPF was in the range 238.68 - 467.48 µm. We conclude that the Response Surface Methodology is an accurate approach for optimizing porang flour production.