Predictive Models for Head Rice Yield and Breakage Ratio Under Optimal Steam Parboiling Variables for Faro 44 Rice Variety


  • Charles Obiora Nwajinka Nnamdi Azikiwe University
  • Bonaventure Muochebe Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
  • Ernest Ifeanyichukwu Nwatu Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka


FARO-44, Rice, Head rice, Breakage ratio, parboiling, Modeling


This study was carried out to determine the optimal conditions for steam parboiling process for increased Head Rice Yield (HRY) and reduced Breakage Ratio (BR)of milled FARO-44 rice variety. The process variables studied were  Soaking Temperature (SkT), soaking time (Skt) and Steaming time (STt). The SkT was varied between 70 oC and 90 oC, Skt between 40 and 50 mins while STt was varied between 8 to 12hrs. Head Rice Yield (HRY) and Breakage Ratio(BR) were selected as the quality attributs considered in the optimization as the response variables. The objective of the optimization was to determine the combination of factors that will maximize HRY and minimize BR. At the composite desirability of 0.683, the optimal values of STt, STt and Skt were 76.99 0C,40.16 minutess and 9.14 hours respectively. At this factor combination,the corresponding values of HRY and BR were 88.58%, 11.26% respectively. 

Author Biographies

Charles Obiora Nwajinka, Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Senior Lecturer

Bonaventure Muochebe, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Research Assistant

Ernest Ifeanyichukwu Nwatu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering






VI-Postharvest Technology and Process Engineering