Energy Input and Output Analysis of Sweet Orange Production in Nigeria

Ogunlade Adesoji Clement, Jekayinfa Olayinka Simeon


The study was undertaken to investigate the energy input and output of a group of citrus research farms in Nigeria. Data used in this study were collected in-situ on yearly basis; therefore the analysed and discussed energy values were averages of data collected over the years. The research results indicated that total energy inputs were 46.64 GJha-1. About 35% was generated by human labour, 38% from diesel oil and machinery, while other inputs contributed 29% of the total energy input.  About 87% of the total energy inputs used in sweet orange production was from direct sources (seeds, fertilizers, manure, chemicals, machinery) and 13% was from indirect sources (human labor, diesel). Mean orange yield was about 41000 kg ha-1.  The net energy and energy productivity value was estimated to be 31.3 GJha-1 and 0.88 kg MJ-1, respectively. The ratio of energy outputs to inputs was found to be 1.67. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in sweet orange production not accompanied by increase in the final product. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of production of sweet orange production was $5590/ha. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 2.2. A methodological shift from the use of energy from non-renewable sources to renewable ones could bring about an improvement in the energy use pattern of the research citrus farms in Nigeria


Energy sources, energy use indices, sweet orange.

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