The Influence of Propyl gallate Antioxidant on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of khaya senegalensis (Mahogany) Biodiesel


  • Danladi Drambi Usman Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.


The continuous rise in the total earth’s atmospheric temperature is basically attributed to the greenhouse effects occasioned by increased levels of CO2 and other air pollutants. The objective of this study was to investigate the Influence of propyl gallate antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with blends of khaya senegalensis (Mahogany) biodiesel on a TD 110-TD 115 single cylinder four-stroke internal combustion diesel engine under constant speed (1500 rpm) and varying load (L1, L2, L3 and L4) conditions coupled with SV 5Q automobile exhaust gas analyser. Khaya senegalensis biodiesel was produced at optimized reaction conditions using reaction variables, viz, 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.84 wt. % catalyst concentration, 70◦C temperature and 60 min reaction time. Selected physicochemical properties of the biodiesel blends were determined using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures. The fuels used in the analyses are B0, B20, B30 and B100. Propyl gallate antioxidant were added at 1000 ppm concentration to B20, B30 and B100 to study their effect. The results showed that the PG-treated B20, B30 and B100 blend decreased the BP by 21.94%, 12.12% and 36.17% as compared to B20, B30 and B100 fuel blends, but increase by 0.99% for B20PG at L4, and increased BSFC by 21.47%, 15.42% and 22.63%. At load L4, the BSFC increase for B20PG and B100PG by 12.70% and 1.35%, and reduces for B20PG by 8.09%. BTE decreases for B20 and B100 by 28.39%, 18.63% and 34.42%, while B30PG show an increase of 8.02%. Also, B20PG recorded a drop in EGT by 15.40%, while B30PG and B100PG had 1.90% and 3.33% increases at a higher load. It is noted that the addition of PG to diesel–biodiesel blend caused to lower emissions (CO, CO2, HC, and NOx).CO reduces by 0.02 and 0.01% for B30 and B100, CO2 emission reduces by 2.13%, 2.26% and 15.0%, while, HC emission reduce by 12.73, 18.18 and 25.45% respectively at engine load L1 and 14.81, 20.37 and 24.07% at engine load L4 and NOx decreases by B20 (13.85%), B30 (21.54%), B100 (41.54%) compared to that of diesel (B0). The utilization of KSO biodiesel for engine application and the reduction in exhaust emissions was found to be a viable means of heightening adoption of sustainable biofuels and minimizing pollutant emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, further research to incorporate the use of this additive in actual automobile applications is recommended to be carry out.

Author Biography

Danladi Drambi Usman, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering'

Lecturer I






VI-Postharvest Technology and Process Engineering