Energy Analysis of Three Rice Cultivar using different Production Methods, case study: Iran
Keywords:Energy, Efﬁciency, Productivity, Methods, Rice
Beyond 66% of the world population are using Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as staple food which is considered one of the most popular cereals crop ranked after wheat and corn. Both mechanized and conventional methods are being applied in Iran to grow rice. This study performed an analysis of the energy consumed to produce rice in Mazandaran province, Iran, based on the following indices: energy efﬁciency, energy productivity, net energy gain, speciﬁc energy, direct and indirect energy, renewable and non-renewable energy. The cultivars of rice frequently cultivated in Iran comprise native and high yield cultivars. Face to face interviews and ﬁeld survey were conducted to collect the initial data. Given the literature and benefiting from the data collected in the 2017-2018 production period, secondary data and energy equivalents were determined. The data analysis revealed that diesel fuel accounted for the highest share among the total energy inputs on average, while machinery energy consumption ranked second in both rice production methods. The values of energy efficiency were obtained of 1.48 and 1.33 in traditional and mechanized methods, respectively. Total energy consumption to produce rice was obtained of 84634.56 MJ.ha-1 and 95644.80 MJ.ha-1 in traditional and mechanized methods, respectively. The obtained results indicated dramatic changes according to human labor and chemicals in two methods.