Investigation of energy inputs and CO2 emission for almond production using sensitivity analysis in Iran


  • Marzie Salehi
  • Ali Maleki
  • hasan ghasemi mobtaker Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Sajad Rostami
  • Hossein Shakeri


energy use, energy efficiency, cobb–douglas, almond


The objective of this study is to examine input–output energy and CO2 emission of almond production in Shahrekord region, Iran. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and some energy indices like energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy gain. Sensitivity analysis of energy was carried out using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) technique. For this propose data were collected from 29almond farms using a face to face questionnaire. The results revealed that total energy input for almond production was found to be 106.61GJ/ha where the electricity was the major energy consumer (59.58%). The direct energy shared about (50.98%) whereas the indirect energy did (49.02%). Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, and net energy were 0.37, 0.016 kg/MJ, and -67350.16MJ/ha, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for farmyard manure and water energies) was insignificant. Water energy was the most significant input (0.674) which affects the output level. The results also showed that the impacts of direct, indirect and renewable energies on yield are significant. The GHG emissions were indicated a high CO2 output in diesel fuel consumption.






IV-Energy in Agriculture