Extraction of Carotenoid Compounds from Saffron stamenUsing Ultrasound Waves
Keywords:Antioxidant, Carotenoid, Extraction efficiency, Saffron stamen, Ultrasonic
Saffron flowers by products including sepals, petals and stamens have no application in Iran’s food industries; nevertheless stigmas contain a considerable amount of carotenoids withhigh antioxidant properties. In this study carotenoid compounds were extracted by an organic solvent (mixture of N-hexane, ethanol and acetone; 2:1:1 v: v) and ultrasound waves. Ultrasound waves were applied at a frequency of 24 kHz and amplitude of 20, 60 and 100% for5, 10 and 15 minute. All treatments were tested in triplicates. The extraction efficiency, total carotenoid and phenolic compounds, free radical scavenging and reducing power of Fe III were analyzed. The results showed that ultrasound waves with amplitude of 100% imposed for 15 min caused the highest extraction efficiency (8.882%), whereas ultrasound waves with amplitude of 100% imposed for 10 min showed the highest carotenoid extraction (485.2 mg.ml-1), total poly phenol compounds (551.7 mg.ml-1), reduction power of Fe III ( 443.3 μm. l Fe III ) and the lowest IC50 (614.6 mg).