Some engineering properties of three selected groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties cultivated in Nigeria

Fatai Bukola Akande, Adepoju Bola Fashina, Aminu Saleh

Abstract


The importance of engineering properties on agricultural materials in determining the parameters for agricultural produce processing and equipment design and development cannot be over emphasized. Knowledge of these properties is necessary for the design of various separating, handling, storage and drying systems. Three varieties of groundnuts commonly cultivated in Nigeria were identified, selected and procured. They were: Samnut 10, Samnut 14 and Samnut 18. The aim of the study was to investigate varietal differences for seed weight, average length, thickness, width, geometric mean diameter, degree of sphericity, volume, true densities, surface area, aspect ratio and hydration capacity of the three selected groundnut pods and kernels at 8% moisture content. The average properties of pods for the selected varieties were found to be pod mass of 1.62 g, 1.31 g, 1.40 g; volume of 5.53 ml, 4.35 ml, 4.94 ml; geometric mean diameter of 18.1 mm, 16.43 mm, 17.90 mm; surface area of 10.37 cm², 8.50 cm², 10.08 cm²; sphericity of 0.56 %, 0.64 %, 0.60 %; aspect ratio of 28.26, 38.76, 39.41 and a hydration capacity of 0.36, 0.49, 0.70 g/pod for Samnut 10, Samnut 14, and Samnut 18, respectively. The respective values of the kernels for these varieties were determined to be kernel mass of 0.52 g, 0.47 g, 0.57 g; volume of 0.74 cm³, 0.57 cm³, 0.70 cm³; geometric mean diameter of 5.05 mm, 4.47 mm, 5.02 mm; surface area of 0.42 cm², 0.53 cm², 0.41 cm²; sphericity of 0.35, 0.39, 0.35; aspect ratio of 62.18, 69.90, 60.77 and a hydration capacity of 0.30, 0.17, 0.28 g/kernel. Correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the degree of association between different parameters. The results of this study showed that each of these varieties has different physical properties and thus require careful study for successful design and development of optimal processing equipment.

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