Innovative Technology of Egyptian Mosques by Using Solar Energy and Reusing Ablution Water in Sustainable Crop Production

Abdelraouf Ramadan

Abstract


Egypt is nowadays facing a lot of challenges, such as limited water and energy resources. In the near future and after building El-NAHDA Dam in Ethiopia, Egypt will suffer from a severe aqueous shortage. Another fatal problem is the unavailability of getting enough energy supplies. Here, the problem of energy is a natural consequence of unsustainable development of energy patterns followed during the last decades. There are many new water resources that have not been well exploited in agriculture. One of these resources is the ablution water in the Egyptian mosques. This new resource can be managed by solar (photovoltaic) energy, as Egypt has good weather with high rates of solar radiation which can reach up to 3000 hours/year. This study cared out to investigate the impact and feasibility of reusing the ablution water as a new source for irrigation and pumping it by photovoltaic (PV) on sustainable crop production. Systems designs of green roof [traditional design (green roof using fresh water in irrigation and using electric energy for pumping it) and sustainable design (green roof by reusing ablution water as a new water resource for irrigation and using PV energy for pumping it] in main plots and number of green layers [one green layer, two green layers and three green layers] in sub- main plots. Statistical analysis indicated that, maximum yield of vegetables crops and maximum net income for seasons 2015 and 2016 are occurred under sustainable design with three green layers.


Keywords


Solar energy, Photovoltaic system, Reuse ablution water, Drip irrigation, Green roofs, Water and energy use efficiency

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